Matthias Manske Book: Entscheidung im siebten Jahr Matthias Manske Lead Toy Soldiers 40mm

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August 2017

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Historical Background:





Revolutionary Wars in France


Napoleonic Wars French Old Guard Waterloo 1815



Austrian War of Succession 1740-1748



Seven Years War 1756-1763


Battle of Leuthen 1757


American War of Independence 1775-1783



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Catalogue Supplement 2013 Matthias Manske Lead Toy Soldiers

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Novelties Manske Toy Soldiers

Historical Background

The variety of arms and postures allows realistic dioramas and might be interesting for wargaming scenes of the Age of Enlightenment:


► Austrian War of succession (incl. Silesian Wars) 1740-1748

► SYW: Seven Years´ War 1756-1763

► The Battle of Leuthen 1757

► AWI: American War of Independence (American Revolution) 1775-1783

► The beginning of the revolutionary wars in France

► Napoleonic Wars, French Old Guard, Waterloo 1815

   3.  AWI: American War of Independence (American Revolution) 1775-1783


In 1775, the battle of Lexington was the beginning of the war. George Washington became the first general of this resistance against the George III armies. In July 4th 1776 Thomas Jefferson proclamed the declaration of independence, but England sent more troops for stopped the rebellion. The Americans struggled against British until 1783 and with french help, by General Lafayette, were succesful in the victory.
The Britains conquered Bunker Hill near Boston in Jun. 17th 1775, but capitulated in Saratoga 1777 in cause of losing the battles of Freeman's Farm and Bermis Heights. Baron Steuben reformed the american troops after the prussian example at Valley Forge. The Britains capitulated at Yorktown Oct. 19th 1781 under siege of american and french troops.


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   4.  The beginning of the revolutionary wars in France


The revolutionary France declared war to Austria on April, 20th. 1792. Prussia formed very quickly the First Coalition with Austria. An allied army under command of the duke of Brunswick pushed ahead slowly into the Champaign. At the Canonade of Valmy (Sept. 20th. 1792) the French Army of Revolution stopped the Allies and forced them to retreat.
The advancing of the French begun (and continued until 1815), described by eye-witness J.W. Goethe in "The campaign in France", 1822.


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   2.  SYW: Seven Years´ War 1756-1763


The state Prussia in european struggle to survive. The austrian Chancelor Kaunitz forged a coalition between France, Russia, Austria, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation against Prussia.

 
King Frederick II. of Prussia occupied in an preemptive strike the austrian Ally Saxonia and bat austrian-saxonian forces at Lobositz 1756.
In May 1757 he bat the Austrians in the battle of Prague, but after his first defeat of Kolin in June he must retreated from Bohemia. In November, Frederick marched against the advancing Reichsarmy allied with french corps. The prussian cavalry general Seydlitz put the allies to flight in the battle of Roßbach Nov. 5th 1757.  Only 30 days later, Frederick II. launched an unawared and decisive blow at Leuthen (see
► 2.1 The Battle of Leuthen) against the Austrians, from which they never recovered in 1758.


In 1758 the duke of Brunswick forced the french to retreat over the Rhine after the battle of Crefeld in June. In the east, King Frederick bat the russians at Zorndorf Aug. 25th.  In Saxonia, austrian Fieldmarshall Daun launched a nightly attack and defeated the prussians at Hochkirch Oct. 14th.


In 1759, the duke of Brunswick kept the the french army in distance by thebattle of Minden, won with british-hanoverian-prussian troops. In the east, Frederick the Great suffered his worst defeat at Kunersdorf, Aug. 12th. Moreover the complete prussian Corps Finck got caught by fieldmarshall Daun at Maxen in November ("Finckenfang!").


In cause of the victories of Liegnitz Aug. 15th and Torgau Nov. 3rd Frederick II. saved Prussia from the clutch of its enemies, but its resources where exhauasted completely and the King thought about suicide. But with the death of the russian Empress Elizabeth II. it came to the no more expected turning of the tide. Frederick II. closes separate peace contracts with Russia an Sweden. After victories over Daun at Burkersdorf in June 7th 1762 and Reichenbach Aug. 16th 1762 he reconquered Silesia. His brother prince Henry bat austrian  troops and con-tingents from the Reichsarmy at Freiberg in Saxonia Oct. 29th 1762. Also France and Austria gave up and it came to the peace of Hubertusburg in February 1763.

In North America, the French lost Canada to the Britains after the battle of Quebec Sept. 9th 1759 and the fall of Montreal 1760.


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   1.  Austrian War of Succession 1740-1748


Prussia, Bavaria and France fought for austrian territories after the death of emperor Karl VI.. Because of the Pragmatic Sanction his daughter Maria Theresia came to austrian reign. In the Silesian Wars the young prussian King Frederic II. bat the austrian armies in Silesia at Mollwitz 1741 and Chotusitz 1742. After a disastrous retreat from bohemia he bat the austrian troops again at Hohenfriedeberg and Soor 1745. Prussian Fieldmarshall Leopold v. Anhalt-Dessau bat the austrian allies, the saxons by storming the snowy heights of Kesselsdorf in Saxonia December 1745.

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   5.  Napoleonic Wars,  French Old Guard, Waterloo 1815


The grenadiers of the Old Guard (Grognards) became the symbol of the french imperium. They accompanied the Emperor as an extraordinary intervention force on every campaign.
In the afternoon of June, 18th. in 1815, the french field marshall Ney captured the farm 'La Haye Sainte', the central issue of the english line in the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon held back his guard, because two prussian corps had attacked his right flank in the meantime. So, he let victory out of his hands.
As the emperor brought the guard into action two hours later, the corps was beaten one single time as it got attacked by a numerical superiority with close fire of artillery.
Napoleon had to hurry to Paris immediately to prevent the National Assembly from capitulating behind his back. This circumstance made Waterloo to the great battle of decision in the 19th. century.


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   2.1.  The Battle of Leuthen 1757The battle of Leuthen with lead toy soldiers


Frederick drove his victorious little army back again to Silesia. But he came too late to prevent the defeat of  the outnumbered prussian troops beside Breslau, which he had left before under the command of the Duke of Bevern. In the mean time, the Austrians were willing to take winter quarters. By his surprisingly appearance, the king was able to move the Austrians out of their well-chosen camp behind the river Lohe, for facing his troops. In spite of numerical inferiority Frederick attacked the large army of Prince Charles of Lorraine in a dangerous game. In the Battle of Leuthen he was able to launch a full-scale attack on the Austrian`s left wing  after successful  deception. The Prussians rolled up the whole army oft he Habsburgs in cause of their greater mobility and the good conditions of ground. So, Fredrick the Great reached a totally unexpected act of release. The Battle of Leuthen enabled the Prussian troops to spent the winter in Silesia and offered them the supplies, they urgently needed.

The event is described in great detail in our ► book  “Der Weg nach Leuthen” (engl.: “The way to Leuthen”) in german language. Many mostly-unknown aspects were  examined in new perspectives

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The 3rd Bataillon of Grenadier Guard Rgt. No. 15 is taking the catholic churchyard by storm on through the battle of Leuthen.

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